In order to execute all the following commands , first user have to become a root user . To become a root user do the following.
- First open a Terminal/console/command prompt
Then, you have to type in your root password
APT -- Advanced Packaging Tool
apt-get is a tool to automatically update your Debian machine and get and install Debian packages/applications.
To install your desired package , use the command
# apt-get install package_nameapt will search it's database for the most recent version of this package_name and will retrieve it from the corresponding archive as specified in /etc/apt/sources.list. In the event that this package depends on another,apt will check the dependencies and install the needed packages. See this example:
The following options to apt-get may be useful:
-h This help text.
-d Download only - do NOT install or unpack archives
-f Attempt to continue if the integrity check fails
-s No-act. Perform ordering simulation
-y Assume Yes to all queries and do not prompt
-u Show a list of upgraded packages as well
You can also request a specific version of a package using the following syntax:
# apt-get install package_name=version
Don't know the exact package name , just know the word related to a package,use
# apt-cache search wordIt gives you list of all packages which contain that word.
To find new updates if any,use
# apt-get update
If you somehow damage an installed package, or simply want the files of a package to be reinstalled with the newest version that is available, you can use the --reinstall option as
# apt-get --reinstall install package_name
If you no longer want to use a package, you want to remove it ,use the following command
# apt-get remove package_nameWhen you do this,their configuration files, if any, will remain intact on the system. For a complete removal of the package, Use:
# apt-get --purge remove package_name
To upgrade packages within the same distribution
# apt-get -u upgrade
Completely upgrade the whole distribution to the latest.
# apt-get -u dist-upgrade-u option,causes apt to show the complete list of packages which will be upgraded.
To install a local package ,use the command
# dpkg -i package_name.deb
When you install a package, apt stores them in a local repository (/var/cache/apt/archives/), and then proceeds with installation.In time the local repository can grow and occupy a lot of disk space.To manage this local repository the following commands can be used.
#apt-get cleanIt removes everything except lock files from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/. Thus, if you need to reinstall a package apt should retrieve it again.
# apt-get autocleanIt removes only package files that can no longer be downloaded.
Yum -- Yellow dog Updater Modified
yum is an automatic updater and package installer/remover for rpm systems.It automatically computes dependencies and figures out what things should occur to install packages.
To see a list of available softwares/packages,use
#yum list available
To install some software/package, use
# yum install package_name
To search for a package, you can use
# yum search word
To update some software, type
# yum update package_nameIf "package_name" is left out,yum will update all softwares/packages in the system.
To see what updates are available, use the following command
# yum check-update